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THINGS THAT NULLIFY AN ABLUTION:
It is written in the book Halabi: "In Hanafi Madhhab, seven things nullify an ablution: Firstly, everything excreted from the front and rear organs, for example breaking wind, breaks an ablution. Only the wind coming out of a man's or woman's front does not break an ablution. This happens with very few people. The worms coming out of the mouth, ears or a wound on the skin do not break an ablution. When the point of an enema or a man's finger is inserted into one's back and taken out, if it is moist it breaks an ablution. If it is dry, it would still be a good idea to renew the ablution. The case is so with everything that is partly inserted into the anus. If something is inserted and taken out wholly, it breaks both an ablution and a fast. If a person's hemorrhoids come out and he drives them back in with his hand or with something like a cloth, his ablution will be broken.
When a man puts some oil in his urethra and it flows out, it does not break his ablution according to Imam-i azam. When a woman applies vaginal lavage, the liquid that flows out breaks her ablution.
It is permissible for a man to insert into his urethra a small natural cotton wick lest he will release urine inadvertently. In case there is suspicion of leakage, it is mustahab for a man to do this. But if he sees that it prevents leakage, it will be wajib for him to use it. Synthetic cotton is not advisable. Unless part of the cotton remaining outside is moistened, his ablution will not be broken. And if the cotton is dry when it is taken out, the ablution will not be broken, either. So is the case with the piece of cloth called kursuf which women insert in their front. But if a woman puts it on the crevice instead of inserting it, it breaks her ablution when its inner surface is moistened. If the cotton is put in wholly it breaks the ablution if it is wet when it is taken out. A piece of natural cotton that has been inserted into the back and which is lost breaks an ablution even if it is dry when it comes out. It is mustahab for virgins to use kursuf only during menstruation and for those who are married or widows to always use it. If a person finds feces or urine stains on his underwear after istinja (cleaning oneself after urination or defecation) he must put a long piece of cotton between the buttocks and thus cover the anus, and, before performing an ablution, he must look at the cotton and put it back in its place if it is clean or change it if it is dirty.
He who suffers from enuresis (involuntary urination) should be extra careful lest his underwear will become dirty. For this, you need a square piece of cloth fifteen centimeters in length. Tying a piece of string about fifty centimeters in length to one of the corners of the cloth, you tie the other end of the string to a safety-pin attached to the pants. Next the cloth is wrapped around the end of the penis and secured with the string wound on it and fastened with a knot. If the leakage of urine is too great, it must be reinforced with a piece of cotton, which should be thrown away whenever it is found wet with urine. If the cloth is wet, too, it must be removed, washed and dried so as to be used again. Thus a piece of cloth can be used for months. People who practice this hygienic cleanliness will never suffer prostatic ailments.
The second group of things breaking an ablution consists of those unclean things coming out of the mouth. Of these, vomit and thick blood; blood, food and water coming out of the stomach break an ablution when they amount to a mouthful. They all are najasat-i ghaliza (strong pollutant). Matter vomited by a suckling child is qaba najasat. Vomiting phlegm will not break an ablution. Vomiting thin blood coming down from the head does not break an ablution if it is less than the spittle. Inside the mouth, in terms of an ablution, is deemed an inner limb, but it is considered an external limb when one is in a state of fasting. That is the reason why the blood issuing from a tooth or a wound inside the mouth while remaining in the mouth does not break an ablution. But after coming out of the mouth, if the blood is more than the spittle it breaks an ablution. Thick blood coming down from the head does not break an ablution even if it is more than the spittle. If the blood issuing from the stomach or from the lungs is thin it breaks an ablution even if it is less than the spittle, according to Shaikhayn (imam-i azam Abu Hanifa and imam-i Abu Yusuf (rahmatullahi alaihim)). If any oil dropped into the ear goes out through the ear or the nose it does not break an ablution. But if it goes out through the mouth it breaks an ablution. If something sniffed into the nose comes back, even if after many days, it does not break an ablution.
Thirdly, blood, pus, or yellow liquid issuing through the skin, and colorless liquid issuing painfully break an ablution in Hanafi. The fact that these do not break one's ablution in Shafi'i and Maliki is written in the Persian book Menahij-ul-ibad. If the blood or the yellow liquid issuing from a person with small-pox or from an abscess, ear, nose, wound, or colorless liquid that issues with pain or because of an ailment, spreads over the places that must be washed in a ghusl ablution, it breaks one's ablution. For instance, if blood coming down the nose goes beyond the bones it breaks an ablution. And if blood coming through the ears comes out of the ears it breaks an ablution. If one sponges the blood or the yellowish liquid on one's wound or boil (abscess) with cotton it breaks one's ablution. Colorless liquid issuing and flowing from them without pain or ailment does not break an ablution [according to Tahtawi]. If one sees blood on the thing one bites into, one's ablution will not be broken. If one sees blood on the miswak or on the tooth pick, this will not break one's ablution if the inside of the mouth has not been smeared with blood. But, on the other hand, it will break one's ablution if one puts one's finger on the suspected part in one's mouth and then sees blood on one's finger. If a person who suffers from sore eyes sheds tears all the time he is one who has an excuse. (The meaning of the phrase having an excuse will be explained later on). But, except when one has a sore, weeping for some other reason, such as be cause of onions, smoke and other kinds of gases, does not break an ablution. In the Shafi'i madhhab an ablution is not broken in either case. A woman's suckling her child does not break her ablution. Sweating, no matter how much, does not break an ablution. Liquid coming out of the ears, navel or nipples because of some pain breaks an ablution. A leech sucking too much blood breaks an ablution. Harmful insects such as flies, mosquitos, fleas and lice do not break an ablution even if they suck a great deal. A little blood on the skin that does not spread, blood which is formed in the mouth and which is not a mouthful, and a little vomit that is thrown up do not break an ablution; therefore they are not najs (religiously dirty).
The fourth cause that breaks an ablution is to sleep, in all the four Madhhabs. In Hanafi, sleeping in a position that will leave the anus loose, such as by lying on one's flank or back or by leaning on one's elbow or on something else, will break an ablution. If one does not fall down when the thing on which one leans is taken away suddenly, one's ablution is not broken. Sleeping in Salaah does not break an ablution. Sleeping by drawing up the legs and putting the head on the knees does not break an ablution. Sleeping by sitting with the feet on one side does not break an ablution. If a person sleeps by erecting one of his shanks and sitting on the other thigh, his ablution will break. Sleeping on a bare animal does not break an ablution, provided the animal is going uphill or on a level road. Sleeping on a saddle and panel does not break an ablution in any case.
Fifthly, fainting, going crazy, or having an epileptic fit breaks an ablution. Being as drunk as to waver when walking breaks an ablution.
Sixthly, laughter during Salaah with ruqu's and sajdas breaks both the Salaah and the ablution. But it does not break a child's ablution. Smiling in Salaah breaks neither the Salaah nor the ablution. When heard by those who are near one, it is called laughter. When one does not hear one's own laughing it is called smiling. If no one but the person who laughs hears it, it is called dahk, which breaks the Salaah only.
The seventh cause is Mubasharat-i fahisha, that is, when a man and woman physically rub their private parts (saw'atain) on each other. In this case, the ablution of both the man and woman is broken. In Hanafi, touching a woman's skin lustfully does not break an ablution.
Cutting one's hair, beard, moustache or nails does not break one's ablution. It is not necessary to wash the places cut. It is written in the Persian explanation of Fiqh-i Ghidani: "Cutting the nails does not break an ablution. It is mustahab to wash the hands." Peeling of the skin on a wound does not break it, either.
Any cracks on the skin must be washed when making an ablution. If one cannot put water on it, one makes masah. If masah is not possible, either, one may omit it. If one has put some ointment on a crack on one's foot, one washes over the ointment. If washing will harm the crack, one makes masah over it. If the ointment drains off after washing, one washes under it if the wound has healed. If it has not healed one does not wash it. [See chapter 5]. If one has wounds on both hands, and if washing will be harmful, one makes tayammum. If one hand is healthy, one uses it for ablution. If one's hand has been cut off from the elbow or if one's foot is cut off by the heel, one washes the place of the cut.
Halabi-yi kabir writes: If a person knows that he has performed ablution and doubts if it has been broken later, it is judged that he has an ablution. If he knows that his ablution has been broken and doubts whether he has performed ablution again, he has to perform an ablution. If he doubts whether he has washed a limb while performing an ablution, he washes the limb. If he has the doubt after finishing the ablution it is not necessary to wash the doubtful limb. If a person who notices some wetness on himself after performing ablution doubts whether it is urine or water, he performs ablution again if this happens to him for the first time. If it often happens to him, it will be understood that it is a doubt caused by satan; therefore, he will not renew the ablution. In order to eliminate such doubts, he must sprinkle water into his pants or underwear [Kimya-yi saadat], or use a cellulosic cotton wick. If a person doubts whether his pots, pans, dresses, body, water, well, pond, or any butter, bread, clothes, food and others prepared by the ignorant or by disbelievers are dirty, they are to be judged clean.
It is haram to hold the Qur'an al-karim without having an ablution. It is permissible to recite it without an ablution. It is sunnat to go to bed with an ablution. It is written in the explanation of Shir'at-ul-Islam: "It is permissible and blessed to recite the Qur'an al-karim without an ablution while lying in bed. But, one must hold one's head out of the blanket and put one's legs together."
When wadi or mazi is emitted, one's ablution is broken according to all of the four madhhabs. Even the ghusl (ritualistic bath) is necessary in the Hanbali madhhab [Inaya]. It is haram to enter a mosque when you are junub or during menstruation, and it is makruh without an ablution [Durar Gurar]. If frontal or anal emissions which normally break an ablution take place because of an illness and there is haraj [difficulty] in making an ablution for such reasons as extremely cold weather, illness or old age, one's ablution will not be broken according to the Maliki Madhhab.
It is stated in Kitab-ur-rahmah, "Continuous involuntary urination is termed 'silis-ul-bawl.' One cup of chick-peas and two cups of vinegar are put in a container. Three days later, three chick-peas and one teaspoonful of vinegar are taken three times daily. Or, one spoonful of seeds of rue and ginger and cinnamon and black-pepper are pulverized and mixed. One teaspoonful of the mixture is taken with water, once early in the morning, without having eaten anything, and once before going to bed at night."